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Analytic hierarchy process of geoecological monitoring of the impact of road infrastructure on environmental objects / G. Priorov, A. Makarova, V. Chelnokov et al. // 19th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference, SGEM 2019. — Vol. 19 of International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM. — International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference Albena, Bulgaria, 2019. — P. 745–751. Given the geographical extent of Russia, its highways play a crucial strategic role. Combining territories through the mass transfer of freight and passenger traffic and providing access to various resources, the road infrastructure facilitates the development of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. At the same time, any unsolved problem seriously hampers the economic development of both the country and its regions. Waste during the maintenance of roads is generated during their operation as a result of the destruction of the road surface, transportation of dusty goods and materials on them, movement of polluted vehicles, as well as a result of winter road maintenance and their anti-icing materials (AIM). The issue of the environmental safety of substances and materials used for the maintenance and operation of roads, including AIMs, is currently very relevant, so there is a need for a detailed approach in assessing the potential impact of such materials on humans and environmental objects, as well as identifying risks and restrictions, related to the handling of these products. The exact analytical methods, which include the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), are sufficiently universal for any sphere of human activity: business, government or social life. It explains the relevance of the topic of this work. Analysis of the problem of decision-making in the method of analyzing hierarchies is based on the construction of a hierarchical structure that includes the goal, criteria, and other factors considered that influence the choice. For the geoecological monitoring of pollution generated during the operation of roads, an analytic AHP-system has been developed for determination of the effects of pollutants on the most important environmental components in Moscow. The key environmental objects were selected: soil, green spaces, water bodies, and atmospheric air. To improve the accuracy of research, the primary analysis of environmental objects provided for monthly sampling in each ecological zone during the whole year. [ DOI ]

Assessment of presurface ozone concentration as a function a some meteorological factors / V. Lapchenko, E. Evstafeva, A. Makarova et al. // 19th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2019. — Vol. 19 of International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference-SGEM. — Albena, Bulgaria 51 Alexander Malinov blvd, Sofia, 1712, Bulgaria, 2019. — P. 875–882. This article is devoted to assessment of presurface ozone concentration (PCO) dynamics, relevant meteorological factors and their role as risk factors for increasing PCO. During all the year of 2017 PCO daily average values in atmospheric air were essentially higher than externally the permissible level; season dynamics was characterized by two maximums in spring and summer periods. To achieve this goal, the following parameters were compared: -time series of average daily, maximum, minimum PCO (?g/m3) -average daily (oC) and maximum air temperatures (oC), -humidity (%) of atmospheric air, -speed (m/s) and wind direction, -atmospheric pressure (mm. Hg. Art.). The annual dynamics for 2017 (Russia, Southern District) was used to analyze the annual dynamics, which were compared with previous studies for 2013 and 2014. The relationship between PCO level and atmospheric characteristics (pressure, temperature, humidity) was assessed with using the linear correlation coefficient. The calculated value was compared with the critical one at a confidence level of p = 0.95. To assess the effect of wind speed on the PCO level, non-parametric statistics were used, which allow investigating samples whose distribution law is unknown or different from normal. Nine variants of a set of PCO values (corresponding to wind directions: no wind, north, north-west, west, south-west, south, southeast, east and northeast wind direction) and seven sample sets of PCO values were formed according to experimental observations from 2013 to 2017. In each group, the selected values were compared with each other and compared with the PCO level. The two hypotheses, main “The differences between PCO levels are random”, and additional "The differences between PCO levels are non-random" were put forwarded. The assessment of differences in the PCO level was carried out using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test, which allowed to establish that the level of the trait under study (PCO) depends on the group. As result the statistically significant PCO dependences on temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure were revealed; higher PCO values were observed at northern-eastern wind than at southern-western one. [ DOI ]

Development of technology for the immobilization of the mercury in the waste for the reducing of the load on the environment / A. Makarova, A. Fedoseev, A. Kushu et al. // 19th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2019. — Vol. 19 of International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference-SGEM. — Albena, Bulgaria 51 Alexander Malinov blvd, Sofia, 1712, Bulgaria, 2019. — P. 157–164. Mercury and its compounds migrate between environmental components. contaminating water bodies. It poses a danger in aquifer systems: inorganic mercury. by the action of microbes. converts to its highly toxic forms such as methyl- and dimethylmercury. minor exposures of which have devastating effects on central nervous system. According to the research conducted in the Russian Federation. mercury used for producing consumer items tends to get into residues (29 tons). Almost 11 tons of mercury is released in soil. 4.8 tons is emitted in the atmosphere and 4.9 tons is migrated into waters. Mercury in mercury-containing waste is prone to leaching. that causes its migration into aquifer systems. The conversion of residual mercury compounds to the most stable form - mercury sulfide will reduce the water bodies pollution. We show that low octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) value significantly reduce impact on the environment. In order to do that values of Kow were measured for several mercury compounds to determine which ones are the most environmentally safe. To immobilize mercury in this paper. we analyze the reactions in a system containing mercury. sulfur. and glass. Glass is used as a common substance accompanying mercury in solid household waste such as thermometers and/or lamps. To evaluate quantities of mobile mercury compounds compared with its sulfide the respective methodologies were developed. including the examination of dissolution rate of elemental mercury in nitrogen acid in varying concentrations and carrying the series of experiments of indirect titrations using potassium iodide. sodium chloride and direct titration with ammonium rhodanate. As a result. the developed method describes recommended concentrations of the standard solutions and titrated substances. In addition. equations for determination of residual concentrations and the detection limit of Hg2+ ions were described in this work. Reaction masses and reaction products need to be drained and pumped; this study suggests using bentonite for this purpose. Low viscosity allows easily remove suspensions from apparatus and pump them to the dryer. The parameters for the preparation of bentonite-glass-water suspensions were selected. taking into account the possibility of such operations as pumping suspensions with appropriate pumps and pumping them into the dryer. The necessary parameters were such ratios as Tsum. (A mixture of bentonite-glass). Tsum-water. as well as the ratio of the mixture of sulfur-glass. in which the viscosity of the suspension in the Marsh funnel was in the range of 180-300 seconds (this range is required for the pump for pumping the kaolin slurry). [ DOI ]

Elemental composition of human hair in different territories of the crimean peninsula / E. Elena, B. Nataliya, B. Anna et al. // 16th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction (WRI-16) and 13th International Symposium on Applied Isotope Geochemistry (1st IAGC International Conference). — Tomsk, Russia, 2019. — P. 1–5. Abstract The chemical homeostasis of humans has changed due to global and local anthropogenic impacts on biogeochemical cycles. Their degree is mediated by natural geochemical character of local environments. The elemental composition of human hair and quantitative relation between elements is summary characteristic of biogeochemical environmental conditions. To determine the biogeochemical situation 78 inhabitants from different geographic regions across the Crimean peninsula, cities and rural areas were investigated through the analysis of 28 elements by neutron activation analysis and determination of mercury by atomic absorption spectroscopy. High variety of elemental composition in inhabitants’ hair on different types of territories in the Crimean peninsula was revealed. Comparison with different territories of Russian Federation and Belarus shows both common and specific features. On most part of Russian and the Crimean territories a deficiency of essential elements (Zn, Cu) in human hair is characteristic. At the same time there are significant differences in content of some essential elements (Ca, Fe) and other ones (Th, Ce, Au, U, Ag, Cs) even in the limited Crimean territory. It requires further investigation of factors, which determine the revealed variability. [ DOI ]

Environmental performance assessment of the chemical industries involved in the responsible care®program: Case study of the russian federation / A. S. Makarova, J. Xuexiu, E. B. Kruchina et al. // Journal of Cleaner Production. — 2019. — Vol. 222. — P. 971–985. The chemical industry is one of the typical sources of harmful pollutants and some of which are difficult to tackle. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are of great concern to the performance of chemical industries regarding environmental impacts, and one of the core programs is the global voluntary Responsible Care® Program (RCP), aiming to encourage the industries to voluntarily report environmental performance data. Due to the voluntary reporting system, the collected datasets are huge while often heterogeneous, which makes it difficult to analyse the performance and evaluate the difference before and after the launch of the program. Direct comparison of actual indicators may fail to provide an accurate estimation of the implementing efficiency of the RCP. In this study, an original algorithm is developed to analyse the environmental KPIs of chemical companies involved in the RCP, in order to investigate the efficiency of the program and provide insightful suggestions for further development of the data reporting, as well as to provide advice for the further application of the program. The results showed that most of the environmental impacts of the chemical industries in the RF, e.g. soil pollution and water pollution, has been decreasing after the launching of the program. However, for both the companies involved in the RCP and the entire chemical industrial sector of the RF chemical industry, the GHG emissions maintained an increase. A major insightful conclusion is more energy has been used for improving more direct environmental impact, while the attention for impacts with longer harm potential, e.g. GHG emissions, has been shifted. Further policies and regulations should be targeted at the impact of the chemical industry on climate change, and new technologies should be encouraged to improve the efficiency of energy use and thus decrease GHG emissions. [ DOI ]